An image

Employment by workplace and residence

Comparing data about the location of employment and the residences of workers within the North East. Estimates of net in- and out-commuting.

Labour Market Population and health Newcastle North Tyneside South Tyneside Durham Gateshead Sunderland Northumberland
Download as a PDF


    Workplace and resident-based employment

    In 2023 in the North East:

    • The number of people working in Newcastle was over 50,000 more than the number of residents in employment, showing a large net in-commute
    • Sunderland was the only other North East local authority area with a net in-commute, but the difference was less than 1,000
    • resident-based employment was more than 15,000 higher than the workplace equivalent in each of North Tyneside, Northumberland, County Durham and South Tyneside, highlighting large net out-commutes
    • Gateshead also had a net out-commute, but not to the same extent.

    Analysing net commuting broken down by broad occupation groups highlights that:

    • Over half of Newcastle's net in-commute was made up of commuting by managers, professionals and associate professionals
    • about 70% of County Durham's net out-commute was due to commuting by this occupation group
    • this contrasted with South Tyneside, where this group made up only 22% of the net out-commute, with 36% being workers employed as process, plant or machinery operatives or in elementary occupations
    • in Gateshead, there was a net out-commute of managers, professionals and associate professionals and a net in-commute of workers in other occupations. In Sunderland the reverse was true.

    Job densities are calculated by dividing the number of jobs in an area by its 16-64 population. Because some working age people are not part of the labour force, areas with a job density of more than 0.8 are likely to require net in-commuting to fill jobs. Workers in an area with a low job density are more likely to be out-commuters:

    • Within North East local authority areas, the latest (2022) job densities ranged from 0.52 in South Tyneside to 1.03 in Newcastle upon Tyne
    • at constituency level, the densities were highest in Newcastle upon Tyne Central, Gateshead, and Washington and Sunderland West
    • they were lowest in South Shields, Houghton and Sunderland South, and North West Durham. 

    About the data

    Headline employment totals and rates for local areas use the residence of the worker to define the geography. More limited workplace-based statistics are also produced. 

    Together, these datasets allow a comparison of the number of workers living in an area with the total working in that area. Subtracting the former from the latter provides an indication of the effects of commuting on an area.

    Working North East residents do not all work at a fixed workplace and some commute out of the area or work offshore or overseas. This results in the North East's residence-based employment total being higher than the workplace equivalent.

    The jobs total used to calculate jobs density is based on information from four sources that provide data about employees, self-employed workers, trainees and HM Forces employees.